Many people think that fast weight loss leads to a rapid set of kilograms after giving up the diet, and slow, on the contrary, helps to maintain weight.
A recent Australian study refuted this view.
One group of subjects lost weight in 12 weeks, and the other – in 36. Then, those who lost more than 12.5% of their initial body weight were expected to have a 144-week weight maintenance program.
As a result, 70% of those who quickly lost weight and 72% of those who grew thin gradually regained all the weight they dropped. However, in the first group, 81% of the subjects were able to lose 12.5% of body weight, and only 50% in the second group.
It turns out that fast weight loss is more effective than slow.
Dr. Donald D. Hensrud from the Mayo Clinic advises losing no more than 0.5–1 kg per week. In his opinion, during too rapid weight loss, people often get rid of not fat, but water or even muscle tissue. After all, in a short time it is difficult to burn a lot of calories.
In addition, rapid weight loss can have other negative effects. Dr. Michael Dansinger listed them in his article:
- Stones in the gallbladder. From this disease suffer from 12 to 25% of rapidly thinner people.
- Lack of nutrients.
- Menstrual problems.
- Hair loss.
So, in order not to harm health and lose more fat, lose weight by a maximum per kilogram per week.
If you count, a kilogram per week is a fairly quick result (8 kg in two months), which allows you to form good habits and keep your weight for a long time. And now let’s talk about how to make a diet.
How to calculate PFC
A study at Washington University Medical School found that a high protein diet helps to lose weight, even without calorie restrictions.
The diet of the subjects at 30% consisted of protein foods, 20% – from fat and 50% – from carbohydrates. People consumed fewer calories without any restrictions and after 12 weeks dropped about five kilograms. The scientific article published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2015 also confirms the benefits of a high-protein diet. It claims that a daily intake of 1.2–1.6 g of protein per pound of weight reduces hunger and helps control weight. At the same time, muscle mass is preserved, and fat, on the contrary, disappears.
Add more protein to your diet: 30% of daily calorie intake or 1.6 g per pound of weight.
Contrary to popular belief, not fat, but carbohydrates are to blame for extra kilograms. Therefore, low-carb diets are generally more effective.
Participants in the Frederick Samaha study (Frederick F. Samaha), who sat on a low-carb diet, lost 5.8 kg in six months, while those who followed a low-fat diet only 1.9 kg.
In a study by Stephen Sondike (Stephen B. Sondike), people on a low-carb diet lost 9.9 kg in 12 weeks, while on a diet with a reduced amount of fat, 4.1 kg.
Similar results were obtained by Jeff S. Volek in 2009: a 12-week low carb diet reduced 10 kg, a low-fat diet 5.2 kg.
In addition, low-carb diets are a beneficial risk of type 2 diabetes.
In the studies of Samaha and Sondayka, diets with 20–40 g of carbohydrates per day were used; in the study of Volak, carbohydrates made up 10–12% of the total calories.
If you want to quickly get rid of extra pounds and are ready to completely abandon the flour and sweet, try a diet with a ratio of PFC 30–60–10 or 30–50–20.
A diet with a ratio of PFC 30–30–40 or 30–25–45 will allow you to add porridge and macaroni, some bread, and dried fruits to your diet. But the results will have to wait longer.
Remember: the main thing in the diet – to comply with it. Therefore, try a different ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates and choose the most comfortable for you.
How to calculate calorie
Since one kilogram of fat contains 7,716 kcal to lose weight per kilogram per week, you need to create a deficit of 1,100 kcal per day.
A two-year US study showed that giving up 25% of calories does not harm health. Therefore, if your current diet is less than 4,400 kcal, create a deficit not only through diet, but also through physical activity.
For example, you can reduce the daily rate of 500-600 kcal and add an hour and a half of quiet running or other exercise.
It is also worth considering the amount of proteins, fats and carbohydrates (BJU). This is especially important for those who want to lose fat and maintain most of the muscle mass.
Why do we need training
Training helps to lose weight faster for several reasons:
1. Burn more calories during activity. This item does not require clarification: the more intensively and the longer you move, the more calories you burn.
2. Increase calorie consumption after exercise due to oxygen debt (excess post exercise oxygen consumption, EPOC). For a certain period of time after exercise, the body consumes more oxygen to return to its normal performance, and spends more calories at rest. In 2011, researchers found that after a 45-minute intensive workout, metabolism remained accelerated for 14 hours. At rest, the subjects burned an average of 190 kcal more than on non-training days.
3. Increase the amount of brown fat that spends calories. In 2012, Dr. Bruce Spiegelman (Bruce Spiegelman) in a study on mice found that during exercise, working muscles produce irisin. This hormone travels through the body with blood and turns white fat cells into brown cells – a unique tissue that consumes energy instead of storing it.
Since people also have reserves of brown fat, Spiegelman decided that the hormone irisin performs similar functions in the human body.
Scientists estimate that 50 g of brown fat can burn about 20% of the total daily calories.
In the body of an adult about 20-30 g of brown fat, but its amount may increase under the influence of cold and exercise.
If you only want to lose weight, choose cardio exercises. Research by Professor Joseph Donnelly (Joseph E. Donnelly) from the University of Kansas showed that cardio exercises contribute to weight loss, even without a diet.
How to lose weight quickly and not harm health
For 10 months, five days a week, overweight people spent 400-600 kcal on a treadmill. As a result, they lost about 5 kg without any diets.
A study by Leslie H. Willis and his colleagues at Duke University showed that aerobic exercises are better for weight loss, and strength exercises are better for losing weight without fat.
Combined workouts help reduce fat and maintain muscle.
With what intensity to train
In the first 10 minutes after high-intensity interval training, oxygen debt is much higher than after exercises of medium intensity. However, in the next 30 minutes, the EPOC figures are about the same.
Calorie consumption during the day after a workout does not depend on its intensity.
High-intensity workouts help burn more calories faster. But if you have time and do not want to die in the gym, choose cardio and strength exercises of medium intensity.
Here are some types of activity that will help burn about 600 kcal to a person weighing 70 kg:
- The hour of running at a speed of 9 km/h and a pulse of 140–150 beats per minute.
- Two hours of walking at a speed of 5-6 km/h.
- Two hours of cycling at a speed of 10–12 km/h or an hour of driving at a speed of 20 km/h.
- Two hours of calm swimming (1–1.5 km/h) or an hour of fast (1.8 km/h).
- For interval training, fit burpy, double jumping rope, stuffed ball throws and other exercises for weight loss.
How many times a week to train
Scientists from the University of Alabama in Birmingham that you need to exercise in moderation. Those participants in the study, who were engaged four times a week, began to spend 200 kcal a day more in their daily lives. And those who had six workouts per week, 150 kcal less.
Four workouts per week are suitable for those who want to spend calories not only in the gym, but also in the rest of the time. With such periodicity you can do strength and cardio exercises.
High-intensity interval training should not be done too often: twice a week will be enough. On other days, you can do mid-intensity cardio.
With running, too, do not overdo it. Experienced running coach and physiologist Susan Paul (Susan Paul) advises to start with three running workouts a week and, if desired, supplement the program with two more cross-training. For example, dancing, yoga, zumba and others.
Checklist for those who want to lose weight quickly:
- Count how many calories you consume per day.
- Subtract 500 kcal from your daily allowance. Depending on your weight and the desired rate of weight loss, you can deduct more or less calories, but in any case you should not cut the diet by more than 1100 calories: it can be dangerous to health.
- Make a menu so that about 30% of all calories are protein, and 10–45% are carbohydrates.
- Do 3–5 workouts per week. Calculate physical activity in such a way as to burn about 600 kcal per workout. If you do not have enough time, try high-intensity interval training.
- Do cardio exercises if you only want to lose weight, and add strength to them if you want to maintain muscle mass.
- Avoid stress. Many studies have shown a link between stress and visceral fat. Read more about this in this article.
- Get enough sleep. Studies have shown that lack of sleep increases appetite and bad for health.